Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

Service: Type:
Radiation Therapy

Treatment Offered At

As part of the cancer care multidisciplinary team, our radiation oncologists coordinate every aspect of care, with oncologists, radiologists, surgeons and pathologists to help decide the best course of treatment for each patient.

Radiation therapy is often used to treat breast cancer after a tumor is removed. Radiation may be recommended to ensure that any cancer cells remaining in the lumpectomy area are destroyed. Since healthy cells as well as cancer cells can be affected by radiation, partial breast irradiation minimizes exposure to the rest of the breast, skin, ribs, lungs and heart.

Partial breast irradiation involves the delivery of radiation to only the immediate region surrounding the original tumor. This is the site where recurrence of breast cancer is most likely to occur.

In the past, radiation has been administered to a patient’s “entire” breast over an approximate seven week period of time. Because partial breast irradiation takes less time than external beam radiation, it is called accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved this new technology in 2002. APBI has been used in clinical trials over the past 10 years. These trials have shown that in properly selected breast cancer patients, with early stage breast cancer, a week of partial breast irradiation is as effective as standard whole-breast radiation in preventing recurrence.

How APBI Works

During the lumpectomy surgery, or in a separate procedure, a catheter with a balloon at the tip is temporarily placed into the lumpectomy cavity where the tumor was removed. After surgery the radiation oncologist sends a radioactive seed directly to the tumor site through the catheter. The high dose rate of radiation is usually administered as a complete course given twice a day for a total of five days. This is done on an outpatient basis. Each treatment takes only five to 15 minutes. The catheter stays in place for the entire treatment period. No radiation remains in the body between treatments or after the final treatment. At the end of the last treatment, the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed.

What to Expect

Side effects from APBI are milder than those generally resulting from external beam radiation. Your doctor will explain about how to prevent, or deal with these possible side effects:

  • Pain and discomfort related to radiation.
  • Skin and tissue changes during and after radiation.
  • Fatigue.
  • Fluid accumulation inside the lumpectomy cavity.
  • Scar tissue.

Benefits of APBI

This newer approach to giving breast radiation increases the quality of life for many patients with breast cancer. An APBI treatment can mean the elimination of the time commitment and travel distance often associated with receiving external beam radiation therapy. APBI treatment may allow more patients to preserve their breasts with breast conservation therapy.